For a man who does not believe in a miracle, a slow miracle would be just as incredible as a swift one."*G. Chesterton (1925)."The theory of evolution gives no answer to the important problem of the origin of life and presents only fallacious solutions to the problem of the nature of evolutive transformations . We are condemned to believe in evolution, but we will always search for a suggestion concerning the methods of transformations . Perhaps we are now in a worse position than in 1859 because we have searched for one century and we have the impression that the various hypotheses [of how evolution could have occurred] are now exhausted.
Presently, nature appears to be more steady, more firm and more refractory [resistant] to changes than we thoughtbefore we had made a clear distinction between hereditary variability [within species] and acquired characteristics [DNA characteristics fixing each species]. Salet, Hasard et Certitude: Le Transformisme devant la Biologie Actuelle (1973), p. Several methods for dating ancient materials have been developed.
The key is to measure an isotope that has had time to decay a measurable amount, but not so much as to only leave a trace remaining.
If one of these protons is hit by a beta particle, it can be converted into a neutron.This will be covered in the chapters, Primitive Environment (chapter 9), and DNA (chapter 10).Third, evolution of living organisms into more advanced life forms by natural selection or mutations.Radiation from the sun strikes the atmosphere of the earth all day long.This energy converts about 21 pounds of nitrogen into radioactive carbon 14.